This is one of several articles written by local historian Margaret Brennan that will appear in the News-Register in the months leading up to the celebrations. The project focuses on Augusta County, Virginia and Franklin County, Pennsylvania, and creates a social history of the coming, fighting, and aftermath of the Civil War. The project is a hypermedia archive of thousands of sources for the period before, during, and after the Civil War for Augusta County, Virginia, and Franklin County, Pennsylvania.
And to those of us who have survived, that we might bear witness In doing so, it became apparent to me that Mormon women found that the intensity of female homosociality  available in Mormon structures created a vital space in which they could explore passionate, romantic relationships with each other.
At the same time I have uncovered some of the problematics of male homosociality - its power to arbitrarily defend or exile men accused of entering into erotic relationships with other men.
As Mormon bishop T. Eugene Shoemaker recently posited: Smith explained that God was an exalted [heterosexual] man and that mortal existence was a testing ground for men to begin to progress toward exalted godhood. This separatism, which the sexual deviance of polygamy created, was a highly effective means for the Mormons to gain social and political power amongst their own members.
However, while practicing their own sexual perversion i. For Rich, this Lesbianism easily encompasses many more forms of emotional "intensity between and among women, including the sharing of a rich inner life, the bonding against male tyranny, the giving and receiving of practical and political support.
While some critics see polygamy as a form of male tyranny over women, I find that many Mormon women subversively reconstructed polygamy as a means of escaping male domination on many other levels, in what I call heroic acts of Lesbian resistance.
The potential for female homosocial relationships is found among the polygamous "sister- wives" of Milford Shipp.
This was possible only because her sister-wives cared for her three children in Utah while she was studying back east, pooling their resources to pay her tuition. Her sister-wives also wrote her encouraging letters, while she described those of her husband as "harsh", "bitter and sharp".
Shipp returned to Salt Lake City, she set up a thriving medical practice and made enough money to send her other sister-wives through medical college or midwifery training.
He gave them important marital status and fathered their children.
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Otherwise, "in polygamy the wives and children learned to fend for themselves". Shipp recorded in her private journal, "How beautiful to contemplate the picture of a family where each one works for the interest, advancement, and well-being of all.
Despite the fact that Joseph Smith deified, eternalized, and pluralized heterosexuality through polygamy and temple ritual, early Mormon women found that their bodies, sensuality, and desires were neither tamed nor contained by obedience to the institution of polygamy.
I believe that many women found creative, unique, and intensely meaningful ways to confess and express their desire for other women. Carol Lasser, has documented that Victorian women in America, in order to formalize "Romantic Friendships" with other women, sometimes married brothers, becoming sisters-in-law and sharing a surname.
She theorizes that marrying brothers "deepened their intimacy, extending it in new directions, further complicating the intricate balance of emotional and material ties, and perhaps offering a symbolic consummation of their passion" for each other.
The "David and Jonathan" of the Primary: Felt and May Anderson Indeed at least one Mormon woman went so far as to request that her husband marry polygamously after she fell in love with another woman, so that the two women could openly live together.
Sarah Louisa Bouton married Joseph Felt in as his first wife but according to a biography, aroundLouie the masculinized nickname she used met and "fell in love with" a young woman in her local LDS congregation named Alma Elizabeth Lizzie Mineer. Thus Louie "opened her home and shared her love" with this second Lizzie.
This time, however, May did not marry Joseph Felt. In May moved in with Louie, and Joseph permanently moved out of the house Louie had built and bought on her own. Those who watched their devotion to each other declare that there never were more ardent lovers than these two".
The same biography also calls the beginning of their relationship a "time of love feasting", and makes it clear that the two women shared the same bed. For centuries, the biblical characters David and Jonathan have been classic signifiers of male-male desire and homoeroticism, because in the Hebrew scriptures, it was written in 2 Samuel 1: May Anderson and Louie Felt "David and Jonathan of the Primary" While polygamy was instigated by Mormon men but subsequently appropriated by their wives as a powerful source for homosocialitythe women themselves created structures and discourses of sorority which allowed Lesbian expression.
The poem, written by Sarah E. Pearson and entitled "Sister to Sister", beautifully describes the intensity of homosocial sorority that Pearson encountered "in the sunlight of the Gospel of Christ". Felt and May Anderson of the Primary apparently had no troubles reconciling their passionate relationship and their religion, other early Mormon women found it more difficult.
For example, Kate Thomasa prolific, turn-of-the-century Mormon playwright and poet, withdrew somewhat from Mormonism while exploring her attraction to other women.The U.S. Fire Administration is the lead federal agency for fire data collection, public fire education, fire research and fire service training.
Learn about the federal agency working for a fire-safe America: the U.S. Fire Administration. Charterhouse School was founded in in the City of London. In it moved from its by then insalubrious surroundings close by Smithfield Meat Market to its present site overlooking Godalming, where it has thriven mightily ever since.
In the later days before its demise as a republic, family life and human character as well as society decayed through divorce, adultery, sexual license, hedonistic behavior, and lack of education of children. Chapel Hill professor to explore history of the Lumbee tribe Study in a place where on-campus research comes to life in off-campus applications throughout area communities, businesses and industries.
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