Legitimacy[ edit ] This article is about legitimate Roman emperors.
Legitimacy[ edit ] This article is about legitimate Roman emperors. For other individuals claiming the title of Emperor, see List of Roman usurpers. The emperors listed in this article are those generally agreed to have been 'legitimate' emperors, and who appear in published regnal lists.
In Augustus' original formulation, the princeps was selected by either the Senate or "the people" of Rome, but quite quickly the legions became an acknowledged stand-in for "the people. The coercion that frequently resulted was implied in this formulation.
Furthermore, a sitting emperor was empowered to name a successor and take him on as apprentice in government and in that case the Senate had no role to play, although it sometimes did when a successor lacked the power to inhibit bids by rival claimants. By the medieval or "Byzantine" period, the very definition of the Senate became vague as well, adding to the complication.
Many of the 'legitimate' emperors listed here acceded to the position by usurpation, and many 'illegitimate' claimants had a legitimate claim to the position.
Any individual who undisputedly ruled the whole Empire, at some point, is a 'legitimate emperor' 1. Any individual who was nominated as heir or co-emperor by a legitimate emperor 1and who succeeded to rule in his own right, is a legitimate emperor 2.
Where there were multiple claimants, and none were legitimate heirs, the claimant accepted by the Roman Senate as emperor is the legitimate emperor 3at least during the Principate. So for instance, Aurelianthough acceding to the throne by usurpation, was the sole and undisputed monarch between — AD, and thus was a legitimate emperor.
Gallienus, though not in control of the whole Empire, and plagued by other claimants, was the legitimate heir of the legitimate emperor Valerian.
Claudius Gothicusthough acceding illegally, and not in control of the whole Empire, was the only claimant accepted by the Senate, and thus, for his reign, was the legitimate emperor. Equally, during the Year of the Four Emperorsall claimants, though not undisputed, were at some point accepted by the Senate and are thus included; conversely, during the Year of the Five Emperors neither Pescennius Niger nor Clodius Albinus were accepted by the Senate, and are thus not included.
There are a few examples where individuals were made co-emperor, but never wielded power in their own right typically the child of an emperor ; these emperors are legitimate, but are not included in regnal lists, and in this article are listed together with the 'senior' emperor.
Emperors after [ edit ] Afterthe list of emperors in the East is based on the same general criteria, with the exception that the emperor only had to be in undisputed control of the Eastern part of the empire, or be the legitimate heir of the Eastern emperor.
The situation in the West is more complex. Throughout the final years of the Western Empire — the Eastern emperor was considered the senior emperor, and a Western emperor was only legitimate if recognized as such by the Eastern emperor.
Furthermore, after the Western emperor ceased to be a relevant figure and there was sometimes no claimant at all. For the sake of historical completeness, all Western Emperors after are included in this list, even if they were not recognized by the Eastern Empire;  some of these technically illegitimate emperors are included in regnal lists, while others are not.
For instance, Romulus Augustulus was technically a usurper who ruled only the Italian peninsula and was never legally recognized.A superb general and politician, Julius Caesar (c BC – 44 BC / Reigned 46 – 44 BC) changed the course of Roman history.
Although he did not rule for long, he gave Rome fresh hope and a. Julius Caesar was born in Rome on 12 or 13 July BC into the prestigious Julian clan. His family were closely connected with the Marian faction in Roman politics. Caesar himself progressed.
Read the statements below about the state of the Roman Republic during Caesar's life and complete the instruction that follows. Statement 1: Stress and pressure from managing the new territories of the Roman Empire created serious issues.
Julius Caesar, Life of Julius Caesar was a strong leader for the Romans who changed the course of the history of the Greco - Roman world decisively and irreversibly. (3) With his strength and courage he created a strong empire. Watch video · Julius Caesar (c.
July 12 or 13, BC to March 15, 44 BC) was a politically adept and popular leader of the Roman Republic who significantly transformed what became known as . The biggest effect Julius Caesar had on Rome was his transform Rome from a republic to an empire.
He also updated the Roman calendar, was undefeated as a general, alleviated the taxes of the working class, significantly expanded Roman territory and invented the newspaper. He also instituted the.