There were many considerations that had to be weighed before the decision was made on invading Okinawa. The decision for invasion was between Okinawa and the Formosa, an island miles off the coast of China. Okinawa was a strategic island in the fact that its three main airfields were being used by Japanese fighters to harass Allied bombing missions heading toward mainland Japan.
It also resulted in the largest casualties with overJapanese casualties and 50, casualties for the Allies. Operation Iceberg was to be, in every way, vast when compared to any other operation undertaken by Allied forces in the Pacific War under U. Indeed, using mainly divisions that had already undertaken island-hopping operations in the South and Central Pacific since mid, the U.
Pacific Fleet stood up the Tenth U. To those Japanese who thought the war was winnable, Okinawa was the last chance. The island lay within miles — easy flight distance — from the Japanese homeland and was, by American design, to be the base from which the southernmost Home Island, Kyushu, would be pummeled to dust ahead of the expected follow-on invasion.
Anything short of complete victory over Allied air, naval and ground forces spelled doom for Japan — and no such victory was remotely in the cards. Thus, from the Japanese view Okinawa was and could be no more than a delaying battle of The battle of okinawa essay on a grand scale.
Japan was vanquished in all but name as soon as the first Boeing Bs left the ground in the Marianas, as soon as American carrier aircraft hit targets in Japan at will, as soon as even twin-engine bombers could strike Japanese ports from Iwo Jima, as soon as Japan dared not move a warship or cargo vessel from a port in any part of the shrinking empire for fear it would be sunk by an Allied submarine.
By April 1,all those events were taking place routinely.
Although the Japanese commanders counteddefenders, of whomwere soldiers of Lt. Therefore the forces on Okinawa were concentrated in a number of sectors that offered the best prospects for a robust, attritional defense. The northern half of the island was virtually conceded, and the south was turned into four extremely tough hedgehog defense sectors.
The proportion of artillery and mortars to infantry was the highest encountered in the Pacific War. Coming to put their defense arrangement to the test was the Tenth Army.
It was to strike across the island, then turn north to pacify a little more than half of Okinawa on its own.
To the right, the 1st Marine Division was also to strike across the island, then become part of the Tenth Army reserve. This feint was in line with where the Japanese predicted the main landing would take place, so for once a feint actually held large numbers of defenders in place looking the wrong way.
Standing from left are Lt. Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr. Lemuel Shepherd, commander of the 6th Marine Division; and his assistant commander, Brig.
Buckner was killed by a Japanese shell on June 18, As soon as these airfields could be brought to operational status, combat-support aircraft would operate from them. Also, many aircraft carriers would remain on station off Okinawa for as long as their air groups were needed.
The land-based component was a Marine command named the Tactical Air Force and consisting of several Marine air groups of fighters and light bombers. Marine fighter squadrons based aboard fleet carriers and several new Marine carrier air groups fighters and torpedo bombers based aboard escort carriers would be available throughout the land operation.
The landings were made against zero opposition and with almost no casualties. Far from going into a state of optimism, however, the many veterans in the assault force realized that a very hard road lay before them, that the Japanese had chosen to dig deep and fight on their own terms.
Yontan Airfield fell by midmorning, after Marines overcame very light opposition along the juncture of the 1st and 6th Marine divisions. Reinforcements moved to fill gaps that developed due to rapid advances by the 4th, 7th and 22nd Marines.
Divisional and IIIAC artillery battalions landed routinely, and many batteries were providing fire by hours.
The IIIAC advance halted between and to avoid more gaps and to help the Marines on the far right maintain contact with the 7th Infantry Division, whose left flank outpaced the 1st Marine Division right-flank unit by several hundred yards. The halt also gave artillery units outpaced by the rapid advance time to move forward and register night defensive fires.
Both airfields, Kadena and Yontan, were firmly in American hands by nightfall, and engineers were already at work to get them operational in the shortest possible time.The Battle of Okinawa, 1 April to 22 June , is known to English-language readers through a variety of accounts, both official and commer-cial.
Some of these works focus on operations, and some provide personal perspectives, so that most major features of the American experience on. The article examines how literature about the Battle of Okinawa has been shaped by the identity and experiences of the author as well as the social and historical context in which the works were created.
The Battle of Okinawa, also known as Operation Iceberg, formed a part of the Pacific War during World War rutadeltambor.com in the spring of , . Oct 29, · Watch video · The Battle of Okinawa was the last major battle of World War II, and one of the bloodiest. On April 1, —Easter Sunday—the Navy’s Fifth Fleet and more than , U.S.
Army and U.S. The Battle of Okinawa Few events have shaped the world in such violent and multitudinous ways as the events of World War II.
Probably the most profound event was the use of atomic weapons on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
A Essay Landforces Employment In The Asia Pacific EMPLOYMENT OF LAND FORCES IN THE ASIA PACIFIC United States military experience in the Asia-Pacific region has been based since its inception in the late s on a joint and expeditionary footing.