Max Gerber] I am often asked whether I agree with the new group selectionists, and the questioners are always surprised when I say I do not. After all, group selection sounds like a reasonable extension of evolutionary theory and a plausible explanation of the social nature of humans.
References and Further Reading 1.
Socrates' Argument In the early Platonic dialogue, Crito, Socrates makes a compelling argument as to why he must stay in prison and accept the death penalty, rather than escape and go into exile in another Greek city. He personifies the Laws of Athens, and, speaking in their voice, explains that he has acquired an overwhelming obligation to obey the Laws because they have made his entire way of life, and even the fact of his very existence, possible.
They made it possible for his mother and father to marry, and therefore to have legitimate children, including himself. Having been born, the city of Athens, through its laws, then required that his father care for and educate him.
Socrates' life and the way in which that life has flourished in Athens are each dependent upon the Laws. Importantly, however, this relationship between citizens and the Laws of the city are not coerced.
Citizens, once they have grown up, and have seen how the city conducts itself, can choose whether to leave, taking their property with them, or stay. Staying implies an agreement to abide by the Laws and accept the punishments that they mete out.
And, having made an agreement that is itself just, Socrates asserts that he must keep to this agreement that he has made and obey the Laws, in this case, by staying and accepting the death penalty.
Importantly, the contract described by Socrates is an implicit one: In Plato's most well-known dialogue, Republic, social contract theory is represented again, although this time less favorably. In Book II, Glaucon offers a candidate for an answer to the question "what is justice?
What men would most want is to be able to commit injustices against others without the fear of reprisal, and what they most want to avoid is being treated unjustly by others without being able to do injustice in return.
Justice then, he says, is the conventional result of the laws and covenants that men make in order to avoid these extremes. Being unable to commit injustice with impunity as those who wear the ring of Gyges wouldand fearing becoming victims themselves, men decide that it is in their interests to submit themselves to the convention of justice.
Socrates rejects this view, and most of the rest of the dialogue centers on showing that justice is worth having for its own sake, and that the just man is the happy man. These views, in the Crito and the Republic, might seem at first glance inconsistent: These two views are, however, reconcilable.
From Socrates' point of view, a just man is one who will, among other things, recognize his obligation to the state by obeying its laws.
The state is the morally and politically most fundamental entity, and as such deserves our highest allegiance and deepest respect. Just men know this and act accordingly. Justice, however, is more than simply obeying laws in exchange for others obeying them as well.
Justice is the state of a well-regulated soul, and so the just man will also necessarily be the happy man.Social Control Theory vs.
Self-Control Theory Essay CRM 01 30 September Social Control Theory vs. Self - Control Theory According to the idea of control theories, an individual who has for some reason or another cut ties with the “conventional order” so that he or she is now free to commit any criminal or deviant acts (Cullen.
Introduction. Social Theory and Social Structure is a landmark work by Robert King Merton first published in It is one of the most frequently cited works in the social sciences as it is a collection of theories and insights within structural – functional paradigm.
The Theory Of Social Learning Theory - The paper aims to critically evaluate and understand key concepts and theories in regard to moral development throughout life.
I am often asked whether I agree with the new group selectionists, and the questioners are always surprised when I say I do not.
After all, group selection sounds like a reasonable extension of evolutionary theory and a plausible explanation of the social nature of humans. The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay.
Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate. Self-control theory belongs to a general class of crime theories, which include social control theory (Hirschi, ) and deterrence theory, each of which builds on the assumptions of the classical school in criminology (Beccaria, ; Bentham, ).