A study of the Philippine bee pollinators strongly indicates a poor pollination environment for many crops compared to other Asean countries.
Pallet boxes and shipping containers Baskets made of woven strips Pechay outline leaves, bamboo, plastic, etc. Uses for above packages: Nets are only suitable for hard produce such as coconuts and root crops potatoes, onions, Pechay outline. Wooden crates are typically wire bound crates used for citrus fruits and potatoes, or wooden field crates used for softer produce like tomatoes.
Wooden crates are resistant to weather and more efficient for large fruits, such as watermelons and other melons, and generally have good ventilation. Disadvantages are that rough surfaces and splinters can cause damage to the produce, they can retain undesirable odours when painted, and raw wood can easily become contaminated with moulds.
Fibreboard boxes are used for tomato, cucumber, and ginger transport.
They are easy to handle, light weight, come in different sizes, and come in a variety of colours that can make produce more attractive to consumers. They have some disadvantages, such as the effect of high humidity, which can weaken the box; neither are they waterproof, so wet products would need to be dried before packaging.
These boxes are often of lower strength compared to wooden or plastic crates, although multiple thickness trays are very widely used. They can come flat packed with ventilation holes and grab handles, making a cheap attractive alternative that is very popular.
Care should be taken that holes on the surface top and sides of the box allow adequate ventilation for the produce and prevent heat generation, which can cause rapid product deterioration.
Plastic crates are expensive but last longer than wooden or carton crates. They are easy to clean due to their smooth surface and are hard in strength, giving protection to products.
Plastic crates Figure 2. They are available in different sizes and colours and are resistant to adverse weather conditions. However, plastic crates can damage some soft produce due to their hard surfaces, thus liners are recommended when using such crates. Pallet boxes are very efficient for transporting produce from the field to the packinghouse or for handling produce in the packinghouse.
Advantages of the pallet box are that it reduces the labour and cost of loading, filling, and unloading; reduces space for storage; and increases speed of mechanical harvest.
The major disadvantage is that the return volume of most pallet boxes is the same as the full load. Higher investment is also required for the forklift truck, trailer, and handling systems to empty the boxes.
They are not affordable to small producers because of high, initial capital investment. Some of the low temperature treatments are unsuitable for simple rural or village treatment but are included for consideration as follows: Precooling may be done with cold air, cold water hydrocoolingdirect contact with ice, or by evaporation of water from the product under a partial vacuum vacuum cooling.
A combination of cooled air and water in the form of a mist called hyraircooling is an innovation in cooling of vegetables. It can be done in refrigerator cars, storage rooms, tunnels, or forced air-coolers air is forced to pass through the container via baffles and pressure differences.
An ice slurry can be applied in the following proportion: The water to ice ratio may vary from 1: The type of room used may vary, but generally consists of a refrigeration unit in which cold air is passed through a fan.
The circulation may be such that air is blown across the top of the room and falls through the crop by convection.
The main advantage is cost because no specific facility is required. Forced air-cooling systems blow air at a high velocity leading to desiccation of the crop. To minimize this effect, various methods of humidifying the cooling air have been designed such as blowing the air through cold water sprays.
Therefore, cooling of crops with cooled water can occur quickly and results in zero loss of weight. To achieve high performance, the crop is submerged in cold water, which is constantly circulated through a heat exchanger. When crops are transported around the packhouse in water, the transport can incorporate a hydrocooler.
This system has the advantage wherein the speed of the conveyer can be adjusted to the time required to cool the produce. Hydrocooling has a further advantage over other precooling methods in that it can help clean the produce.Pole sitao is a climbing herbaceous crop raised basically for its pods, although shoots & young leaves are also edible.
Pods are slender, cm long & somewhat inflated .
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OBJECTIVE DESCRIPTION OF VARIETY CHINESE CABBAGE (Brassica chinensis or B. Pekinensis) pechay, petsay Sri Lanka: kala gowa Thailand: ang chaithao, phakkaat farang, phakkaet bai outline, and cross section of mature leaves.
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