Sulaiman hasbeen working on the development of liquid biofuels since
Etymology[ edit ] The term "Arab Spring" is an allusion to the Revolutions ofwhich are sometimes referred to as the "Springtime of Nations", and the Prague Spring in In the aftermath of the Iraq Warit was used by various commentators and bloggers who anticipated a major Arab movement towards democratization.
Social media and the Arab Spring In the wake of the Arab Spring protests, a considerable amount of attention has been focused on the role of social media and digital technologies in allowing citizens within areas affected by 'the Arab Uprisings' as a means for collective activism to circumvent state-operated media channels.
Social media sites were a platform for different movements formed by many frustrated citizens, including the "April 6 Youth Movement" organized by Ahmed Mahed, which set out to organize and promote a nationwide labor strike, and which inspired the later creation of the "Progressive Youth of Tunisia".
Jared Keller argued that the sudden and anomalous social media output was caused from westerners witnessing the situation sand then broadcasting them. The Middle East and North Africa used texting, emailing, and blogging only to organize and communicate information about internal local protests.
In the countries with the lowest Internet penetration and the limited role of social networks, such as Yemen and Libyathe role of mainstream electronic media devices — cell phones, emails, and video clips e.
YouTube was very important to cast the light on the situation in the country and spread the word about the protests in the outside world. Timeline of the Arab Spring Events leading up to the Arab Spring[ edit ] Tunisia experienced a series of conflicts during the three years leading up to the Arab Spring, the most notable occurring in the mining area of Gafsa inwhere protests continued for many months.
These protests included rallies, sit-ins, and strikes, during which there were two fatalities, an unspecified number of wounded, and dozens of arrests. The idea for this type of demonstration spread throughout the country, promoted by computer-literate working class youths and their supporters among middle-class college students.
In FebruaryUnited States Ambassador Robert Ford wrote in a leaked diplomatic cable that Algeria is 'unhappy' with long-standing political alienation; that social discontent persisted throughout the country, with food strikes occurring almost every week; that there were demonstrations every day somewhere in the country; and that the Algerian government was corrupt and fragile.
Their intention was to demonstrate against labor discrimination, unemployment, looting of resources, and human rights abuses. Violence against Sahrawis in the aftermath of the protests was cited as a reason for renewed protests months later, after the start of the Arab Spring.
Unable to find work and selling fruit at a roadside stand, Bouazizi had his wares confiscated by a municipal inspector on 17 December An hour later he doused himself with gasoline and set himself afire. His death on 4 January  brought together various groups dissatisfied with the existing system, including many unemployed, political and human rights activists, labor, trade unionists, students, professors, lawyers, and others to begin the Tunisian Revolution.
It was sparked by the first protests that occurred in Tunisia on 18 December in Sidi Bouzid, following Mohamed Bouazizi 's self-immolation in protest of police corruption and ill treatment.
The largest, most organised demonstrations often occurred on a "day of rage", usually Friday afternoon prayers. The Arab Spring caused the "biggest transformation of the Middle East since decolonization.
In Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak resigned on 11 February after 18 days of massive protests, ending his year presidency. Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh signed the GCC power-transfer deal in which a presidential election was held, resulting in his successor Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi formally replacing him as the president of Yemen on 27 Februaryin exchange for immunity from prosecution.
Weapons and Tuareg fighters returning from the Libyan Civil War stoked a simmering conflict in Mali which has been described as 'fallout' from the Arab Spring in North Africa.Our latest thinking on the issues that matter most in business and management. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard.
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