This article provides information about the Various Causes of Social Change! One of the central concerns of the sociology of development is change. In societies of all times there is change affecting every realm of life social, economic, cultural, technological, demographic, ecological and so on.
A closed population that is, one in which immigration and emigration do not occur can change according to the following simple equation: In other words, only addition by births and reduction by deaths can change a closed population.
Populations of nations, regions, continents, islands, or cities, however, are rarely closed in the same way. If the assumption of a closed population is relaxed, in- and out-migration can increase and decrease population size in the same way as do births and deaths; thus, the population open at the end of an interval equals the population at the beginning of the interval, plus births during the interval, minus deaths, plus in-migrants, minus out-migrants.
Hence the study of demographic change requires knowledge of fertility birthsmortality deathsand migration. These, in turn, affect not only population size and growth rates but also the composition of the population in terms of such attributes as sexage, ethnic or racial composition, and geographic distribution.
Fertility Demographers distinguish between fecundity, the underlying biological potential for reproduction, and fertility, the actual level of achieved reproduction. The difference between biological potential and realized fertility is determined by several intervening factors, including the following: The magnitude of the gap between potential and realized fertility can be illustrated by comparing the highest known fertilities with those of typical European and North American women in the late 20th century.
A well-studied high-fertility group is the Hutterites of North Americaa religious sect that views fertility regulation as sinful and high fertility as a blessing.
Hutterite women who married between and are known to have averaged 10 children per woman. Meanwhile, women in much of Europe and North America averaged about two children per woman during the s and s—a number 80 percent less than that achieved by the Hutterites.
Even the highly fertile populations of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America produce children at rates far below that of the Hutterites.
The general message from such evidence is clear enough: It is strongly constrained by cultural regulations, especially those concerning marriage and sexuality, and by conscious efforts on the part of married couples to limit their childbearing.
Dependable evidence on historical fertility patterns in Europe is available back to the 18th century, and estimates have been made for several earlier centuries. Such data for non-European societies and for earlier human populations are much more fragmentary.
The European data indicate that even in the absence of widespread deliberate regulation there were significant variations in fertility among different societies. These differences were heavily affected by socially determined behaviours such as those concerning marriage patterns.
Beginning in France and Hungary in the 18th century, a dramatic decline in fertility took shape in the more developed societies of Europe and North America, and in the ensuing two centuries fertility declines of fully 50 percent took place in nearly all of these countries.
There is no dispute as to the fact and magnitudes of such declines, but theoretical explanation of the phenomena has proved elusive. See below Population theories.The five components of culture include symbols, language, values, beliefs and norms. Symbols may be either physical or non-physical.
A flag is an example of a physical symbol, and bows and curtsies are examples of non-physical symbols.
Such factors affect economic prosperity, health, education, family structure, crime patterns, language, culture—indeed, virtually every aspect of human society is touched upon by population trends. Many of the important differences between HUMAN SOCIETIES with regard to the 5 basic components can be explained by the differences in the genetic heritages of their populations (i.e., genetic variables, such as blood type, skin color, color blindness, hair texture, eye shape, resistance to certain diseases, etc).
On a basic level, human resource management is about recruiting, hiring and managing employees. However, an effective human resource system entails many more aspects of the organization, including.
Social structure, in sociology, the distinctive, stable arrangement of institutions whereby human beings in a society interact and live together. Social structure is often treated together with the concept of social change, which deals with the forces that change the social structure and the organization of society.
Social scientists have underlined social change in terms of a change in relationships, organisation, culture, institution, structure and functioning of the social system. By social change, Kingsley Davis meant only such alterations that affect the organisation, structure and functions of society.