At Highland Park, MI, in he married consistently interchangeable parts with standard work and moving conveyance to create what he called flow production. The public grasped this in the dramatic form of the moving assembly line, but from the standpoint of the manufacturing engineer the breakthroughs actually went much further.
Pendleton Act, or Civil Service Act Provided a merit system to end favoritism Required promotions by merit competition, but no centralized appraisal system was established First Law on Appraisal An appropriations act directed the U.
Civil Service Commission now the U. Office of Personnel Management to establish a uniform efficiency rating system for all agencies.
Factors were grouped under the headings Quality of Performance, Productiveness, and Qualifications There were five rating levels for each of the three categories, and also five summary rating levels.
Outstanding, Satisfactory, and Unsatisfactory Employees could still appeal ratings, but now through a statutory board of three members--one from an agency, one selected by employees, and the Chairman of the Civil Service Commission Incentive Awards Act Authorized honorary recognition and cash payments for superior accomplishment, suggestions, inventions, special acts or services, or other personal efforts Provided for training to improve performance and to prepare for future advancement Required an "acceptable level of competence" determination for granting General Schedule within-grade increases Provided for the denial of the within-grade increase when performance is below the acceptable level Authorized an additional step increase for "high-quality performance" Agencies required to develop appraisal systems for all Federal employees Established the U.Human Resource Management is the process of recruiting, selecting, inducting employees, providing orientation, imparting training and development, appraising the performance of employees, deciding compensation and providing benefits, motivating employees, maintaining proper relations with employees and their trade unions, ensuring employees safety, welfare and healthy measures in compliance.
Total quality management (TQM) has a history dating back to the s.
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