These vast nations united Africa, managed wealthy trade routes, and controlled a potluck of cultures.
Songhai people In ancient times there were several different groups of people that collectively formed the Songhai identity.
Among the first people to settle in the region of Gao were the Sorko people, who established small settlements on the banks of the Niger River. The Sorko fashioned boats and canoes from the wood of the cailcedrat tree and fished and hunted from their boats and provided water-borne transport for goods and people.
Another group of people that moved into the area to exploit the Niger's resources were the Gow people. The Gow were hunters and specialized in hunting river animals such as crocodile and hippopotamus.
They were farmers who raised crops in the fertile lands bordering the river. Sometime before the 10th century, these early settlers were subjugated by more powerful, horse-riding Songhai speakers, who established control over the area. All these groups of people gradually began to speak the same language and they and their country eventually became known as the Songhai.
Za Dynasty The earliest dynasty of kings is obscure and most of the information about this dynasty comes from an ancient cemetery near a village called Saneyclose to Gao. Inscriptions on a few of the tombstones in the cemetery indicate that this dynasty ruled in the late 11th and early 12th centuries and that the rulers from this dynasty bore the title of Malik.
Other tombstones mention a second dynasty, whose rulers bore the title zuwa. There is only myth and legend to describe zuwa origins. The Chronicle reports that the legendary founder of the Za or the Zuwa dynasty was called Za Alayaman, who originally came from Yemen and settled in the town of Kukiya.
Gao Empire The camel-riding Sanhaja tribes were among the early people of the Niger bend region. They were locally known as the Tuareg. These tribes rode out of the great Sahara Desert and established trading settlements near the Niger.
As time passed, North African traders crossed the Sahara and joined the Tuaregs in their Niger bend settlements. As trade in the region increased, the Songhai chiefs took control of the profitable commerce around what was to later become Gao.
Between andas the Ghana Empire prospered as the "land of gold" far to the west, the trading centre at Gao became an increasingly important terminus for trade across the Sahara.
And by the 10th century, the Songhai chiefs had established Gao as a small kingdom, taking control of the people living along the trade routes. At aroundGao had become so prosperous that it attracted the attention of the Mali Empire and its rulers.
Gao was subsequently conquered by them and Mali profited from Gao's trade and collect taxes from its kings until about the s. Troubles in the Mali homelands made it impossible to maintain control of Gao. He arrived by boat from Timbuktu on his return journey from visiting the capital of the empire: There is much rice there, and milk, and chickens, and fish, and the cucumber, which has no like.
Furthermore, the ruinous reign of Mari Djata II left the empire in bad financial shape, but the empire itself passed intact to Musa II. However, the real power in the empire was in the hands of Mari Djata, Musa's kankoro-sigui. He put down a Tuareg rebellion in Takedda and attempted to quell the Songhai rebellion in Gao.
While he was successful in Takedda, he did not manage to re-subjugate Gao, and so the Songhai effectively retained their independence. He worked his hardest to get the Songhai empire out of its rocky start. The Muslim leaders of Timbuktu asked him to drive out the invaders. Once Sunni Ali drove them out, he took this chance and took over Timbuktu.
Soon, he had almost all the trading cities along the Niger River. Around thirty years later Sonni Sulayman Dama attacked Mema, the Mali province west of Timbuktu, paving the way for his successor, Sonni Ali, to turn his country into one of the greatest empires Saharan Africa has ever seen.
Like Songhai kings before him, Ali was a Muslim. In the late s, he conquered many of the Songhai's neighboring states, including what remained of the Mali Empire. Sonni Ali was considered the empire's most formidable military strategist and conqueror. Under his rule Songhai reached a size of over 1, square kilometers.
He annexed Timbuktu inafter Islamic leaders of the town requested his assistance in overthrowing marauding Tuaregs who had taken the city following the decline of Mali.
After a persistent seven-year siege, he was able to forcefully incorporate it into his vast empire inbut only after having starved its citizens into surrender. The invasion of Sonni Ali and his forces caused harm to the city of Timbuktuand he was described as an intolerant tyrant in many African accounts.Ghana.
intending “warrior male monarch. ” was the rubric of the swayers of the Ancient Ghana Empire. which was located in modern twenty-four hours Mali and southeasterly Mauritania Ghana western Sudan and once possessed Kumbi Saleh as its premier capital.
as it is today. has small of nil in common with the Ancient Ghana Empire. The former African Ghana consists of about 45 cultural groups. which are . 5 Greatest African Empires "Greatest World Empires, Greatest Empires In Africa, Greatest Empires In The World, Seven Wonders Of The World, Most Significant P.
Ancient Ghana derived power and wealth from gold and the introduction of the camel during the Trans-Saharan trade increased the quantity of goods that were transported. Ghana, Mali, and Songhai Essay Ghana, Mali, and Songhai were three of the greatest western African trading states.
Beginning with Ghana as early as c.e. and ending with the conquest of the Songhai by Morocco in the 16th century c.e., they dominated the trade of gold, salt, and merchandise between North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa.
of the capitals of ancient Ghana, a great trading empire that flourished in western Africa from the 9th through the 13th century.
Situated about miles ( km) north of modern Bamako, Mali, Kumbi at the height of its prosperity, before , was the greatest city of western Africa with. Greatest African Empire: The Ancient Ghana Empire Essay Sample.
According to analysts, the religion that entered Ghana Empire had caused division in their empire, and eventually, lessened their empire strength. of the capitals of ancient Ghana, a great trading empire that flourished in western Africa from the 9th through the 13th century.
Situated about miles ( km) north of modern Bamako, Mali, Kumbi at the height of its prosperity, before , was the greatest city of western Africa with.